Wanyonya damu have existed in a variety of cultures almost since the dawn of time. Until the 19th century, they were believed to be monsters, rather than the stereotype of a zaidi aristocratic being who could infiltrate the world around us, as popularised kwa Bram Stoker. Legend has developed since, with pop culture shows such as "Buffy the Vampire Slayer", which tackles concepts such as a vampire with a soul and possible redemption for a creature previously believed to have had no redeeming qualities whatsoever. Bella lists her observations when she is researching on the internet: "Speed, strength, beauty, pale skin, eyes that shift colour; and then Jacob’s criteria: blood drinkers, enemies of the werewolf, cold-skinned and immortal." (TW7) An excellent summary of vampire legend can be found on Wikipedia.

Our Twilight Wanyonya damu are different yet again, and there are frequent divergences from the Wanyonya damu of legend, although some features remain the same. As Stephenie Meyer explains, "Almost all of the superstitions about vampire limitations are entirely false in my world. Wanyonya damu don’t really have any limits, other than the self-imposed guideline to keep their existence a secret. No unconscious periods, no problem with sunlight, crosses, garlic, holy water, wooden stakes, etc… These are all myths–deliberately placed in earlier centuries to mislead impressionable humans and make them feel safe." (PC8)

1.))) Wanyonya damu are cold to the touch This is definitely true in Twilight. From the very first time Bella encounters Edward’s skin we discover that "his fingers were ice-cold" (TW2) The other Cullens seem to have similarly icy skin: Carlisle has "cool fingers" (TW3), Esme has a "cold stone grasp" (TW15), and so on.

2.)) As they are dead, Wanyonya damu do not need oxygen for survival. Again, this is true. Bella notices from her first encounter with Edward that "he continued to sit so still it looked like he wasn’t breathing." (TW1). He explains this in zaidi depth to Bella later in the novel when she asks how long he can go without breathing: "Indefinitely, I suppose. I don’t know. It gets a bit uncomfortable, being without a sense of smell." (TW16).

3.)) Wanyonya damu have pale skin and fangs. All of the Cullens have very pale skin, "Paler than me, the albino" (TW1); skin that is regularly described as "marble" (TW13) in both its colour and perfection. The skin is also remarkable because of the "purplish bruiselike shadows" beneath the eyes indicative of a lack of sleep. However, the Twilight vampires, "Do not have fangs. Their teeth are so sharp and strong that fangs are hardly necessary (they could bite through steel, if so inclined, a human neck is like butter)" (PC1) In many ways, Meyer’s Wanyonya damu are much zaidi violent than the Wanyonya damu of legend, as their drinking of blood involves much zaidi savaging of flesh than two tidy fang holes in a neck.

4.)) Wanyonya damu can shift shape and even fly (sometimes in the form of a bat) Bella asks about this when Edward offers to onyesha her how he travels through the forest: "Will wewe turn into a bat?" I asked warily. He laughed, louder than I had ever heard. "Like I haven’t heard that one before." It’s fair to assume from Edward’s response that this stereotypical expectation is so far from true that it is laughable. Instead of flight, Stephenie Meyer’s Wanyonya damu have the skill of extreme speed and fast reflexes. Their running is the equivalent of flying. The five-mile hike to the meadow is done on the return journey "in a matter of minutes" (TW13), and Edward’s driving is similarly fast, but very salama due to his speedy reflexes: "I’ve never been in an accident." (TW9) Any flight, however, has to be done in an aeroplane, such as Edward "catching the first flight out of Seattle" (TW21) to be with Bella!

5.)) Wanyonya damu don’t have reflections in a mirror In Twilight Wanyonya damu do have a reflection. On the flight from James, Bella notes Edward’s hesitation when "I saw his expression in the mirror," (TW18) of the car. In PC4, Stephenie Meyer dismisses this part of vampire lore, saying it will be addressed in New Moon, but her Wanyonya damu definitely do have reflections.

6. A vampire can only enter a house if he is invited in. "Vampires need no invitation to enter any house." (). We see Edward retrieving Bella’s truck keys from her house without any invitation, and he is is capable of watching her at night without her knowledge.

7. Sunlight may burn au kill vampires. Bella had heard of this myth herself: "Vampires couldn’t come out in the daytime, the sun would burn them to a cinder." Although none of the Cullens attend school when it is sunny, this is not because the sun hurts them, because "it doesn’t," but because they "can’t go out in the sunlight" at least, not where anyone can see," because of the dazzling diamond-like glittering in the skin. Sunlight marks Wanyonya damu out for what they are, but does not harm them in any way.

8. Wanyonya damu cannot eat human food. Their sustenance comes from blood alone. This feature of Wanyonya damu is seen right from the very first chapter when Alice throws away her, "unopened soda, unbitten apple" . Bella gets curious enough to ask Edward what would happen if he actually did eat something, and Edward "deliberately bit off a mouthful [of pizza], chewed quickly and then swallowed." thereby proving that it is possible for Wanyonya damu to physically eat. However, we are also told that due to the physical changes inherent in becoming a vampire, "He’d have to cough it up later to get rid of it. Not the most pleasant thing, which is why the Wanyonya damu only eat chakula when they absolutely have to in order to blend in."
9. Crosses, garlic, holy water and similar items ward off vampires. Stephenie Meyer sums this up best: "Bunch of garbage."( The Cullens are so unaffected kwa this that they even have an old wooden kuvuka, msalaba hanging in their home, which used to belong to Carlisle’s father. Edward laughs and admits, "It is sort of ironic."

10. Wanyonya damu can be killed kwa decapitation, a wooden stake au a consecrated bullet through the heart. Wanyonya damu can be killed, although only other Wanyonya damu are strong enough to do it. Emmett and Jasper "took care" of James and it is likely that they followed the known way to end a Wanyonya damu existence, namely, "to tear him to shreds and then burn the pieces." It is impossible for a human to kill a vampire kwa any means because they are too strong to be susceptible to humans au human weapons: "You try shoving wood through granite." (
11. Wanyonya damu sleep in coffins. Again, this is something that Bella remembers about Wanyonya damu when she is first investigating them: "They slept in coffins all siku and only came out at night." (TW7). This is obviously highly unlikely as the Cullens are usually at school, au at work during the day, and is something that Bella and Edward joke about later when Bella is visiting the Cullen home. "No coffins?" Apart from anything else, in the Twilight world, Wanyonya damu don’t sleep. "I can’t sleep" , so coffins would be entirely redundant anyway!