Main article: Twilight (novel)
Bella swan moves from Phoenix, Arizona to live with her father in Forks, Washington to allow her mother to travel with her new husband, a minor league baseball player. After moving to Forks, Bella finds herself involuntarily drawn to a mysterious, handsome boy, Edward Cullen. She eventually learns that he is a member of a vampire family who drinks animal blood rather than human. Edward and Bella fall in love, but James, a sadistic vampire from another vampire coven, is drawn to hunt down Bella. Edward and the other Cullens defend Bella. She escapes to Phoenix, Arizona, where she is tricked into confronting James, who tries to kill her. She is seriously wounded, but Edward rescues her and they return to Forks, having killed James.
Main article: New Moon (novel)
Edward and his family leave Forks because he believes he is endangering Bella's life. Bella falls into a deep depression, until she develops a strong friendship with Jacob Black, who she discovers can shape shift into a wolf. Jacob and the other Mbwa mwitu loups in his tribe must protect her from Victoria, a vampire seeking to avenge her mate, James' death, kwa killing Bella. A misunderstanding occurs, and Edward believes Bella is dead. Edward decides to commit suicide in Volterra, Italy, but he is stopped kwa Bella, who is accompanied kwa Edward's sister, Alice. They meet with the Volturi, a powerful vampire coven, and are released only on the condition that Bella be turned into a vampire in the near future. Bella and Edward are reunited, and she and the Cullens return to Forks.
Main article: Eclipse (novel)
The vampire Victoria (James' mate from Twilight) has created an army of "newborn" Wanyonya damu to battle the Cullen family and murder Bella for revenge. Meanwhile, Bella is impelled to choose between her relationship with Edward and her friendship with Jacob. Edward's vampire family and Jacob's werewolf pack jiunge forces to successfully destroy Victoria and her vampire army. In the end, Bella chooses Edward's upendo over Jacob's and agrees to marry him.
Main article: Breaking Dawn
Bella and Edward are married, but their honeymoon is cut short when Bella discovers that she is pregnant. Her pregnancy progresses rapidly, severely weakening her. She nearly dies giving birth to her and Edward's half-vampire-half-human daughter, Renesmee, but Edward injects Bella with his venom to save her life and turns her into a vampire. A vampire from another coven sees Renesmee and mistakes her for an "immortal child". She informs the Volturi, as the existence of such beings violates vampire law. The Cullens gather vampire witnesses who can verify that Renesmee is not an immortal child. After an intense confrontation, the Cullens and their witnesses convince the Volturi that the child poses no danger to Wanyonya damu au their secret, and they are left in peace kwa the Volturi.
See also: orodha of Twilight characters
* Isabella "Bella" swan – The protagonist of the series, teenager Bella is a perpetually clumsy "danger magnet" with dark brown hair and brown eyes. She is often portrayed as having low self-esteem and unable to comprehend Edward's upendo for her. She has an immunity to Supernatural abilities involving the mind, such as Edward's mind-reading ability. After her transformation into a vampire in the saga's fourth installment, Bella acquires the ability to shield both herself and others from "mental harm" from other vampires.
* Edward Cullen – Edward is a vampire who lives with a coven of like-minded Wanyonya damu known as the Cullen family, who feed on wanyama rather than humans. Over the course of the Twilight series, Edward falls in upendo with, marries, and then has a child with Bella. At first, Edward feels a mutual hatred toward Jacob Black because of his upendo for Bella, but in Breaking Dawn, he comes to see Jacob as a brother and friend. Like some vampires, Edward has a Supernatural ability: mind reading. It allows him to read anyone's thoughts within a few miles radius. Bella is immune to his power as a human, but learns how to lower this "shield" after her transformation to a vampire.
* Jacob Black – A minor character in the first novel, Jacob is introduced as a member of the Quileute tribe. He resurfaces in New Moon with a much larger role as Bella's best friend as she struggles through her depression over losing Edward. Although he is in upendo with Bella, she initially sees him as just her best friend. He and other tribe members can shape shift into wolves. In Eclipse Bella realizes that she loves Jacob, though her feelings for him are overpowered kwa her upendo for Edward Cullen. In Breaking Dawn, Jacob finds a soulmate in Bella and Edward's baby daughter, Renesmee, ridding him of his heartache for Bella.
The story is set primarily in the town of Forks, Washington, where Bella and her father, Charlie Swan, live. Other cities in Washington briefly appear in the series au are mentioned, such as Port Angeles, Olympia, Seattle and La Push. Some events in Twilight take place in Phoenix, Arizona, where Bella was raised. Volterra, Italy, is featured in New Moon, when Edward travels there to commit suicide and Bella rushes to save him. Jacksonville, Florida, is mentioned first in Twilight and sekunde in Eclipse, when Edward and Bella visit Bella's mother, who has moved there with her new husband. Seattle, Washington, is featured in Breaking Dawn when Jacob tries to escape his upendo for Bella, and when Bella tries to locate a man named J. Jenks. Bella and Edward spend their honeymoon on a fictional "Isle Esme", purportedly off the coast of Brazil.
Structure and genre
The Twilight series falls under the genre of young adult, fantasy, and romance, though Meyer categorized her first book, Twilight, as "suspense romance horror comedy". However, she states that she considers her vitabu as "romance zaidi than anything else". The series explores the unorthodox romance between human Bella and vampire Edward, as well as the upendo pembetatu between Bella, Edward, and Jacob, a werewolf. The vitabu avoid delving into provocative sex, drugs, and harsh swearing because, according to Meyer, "I don't think teens need to read about gratuitous sex."
The vitabu are written in first-person narrative, primarily through Bella's eyes with the epilogue of the third book and a part of the fourth book being from Jacob's point of view. When asked about the structure of the novel, Meyer described her difficulty to pinpoint the premise of the novels to any specific category:
I have a hard time with that. Because if I say to someone, 'You know, it's about vampires,' then immediately they have this mental image of what the book is like. And it's so not like the other vampire vitabu out there–Anne Rice's and the few that I've read. It isn't that kind of dark and dreary and blood-thirsty world. Then when wewe say, 'It's set in high school,' a lot of people immediately put it in another pool. It's easy to pigeonhole with different descriptions.
The vitabu are based on the vampire myth, but Twilight Wanyonya damu differ in a number of particulars from the general vampire lore. For instance, Twilight Wanyonya damu have strong piercing teeth rather than fangs; they glitter in sunlight rather than burn; and they can drink both animal blood as well as human blood. Meyer maoni that her vampire mythology differs from that of other authors because she wasn't informed about the canon vampires, saying,
It wasn't until I knew that Twilight would be published that I began to think about whether my Wanyonya damu were too much the same au too much different from the others. Of course, I was far too invested in my characters at that point to be making changes... so I didn't cut out fangs and coffins and so forth as a way to distinguish my vampires; that's just how they came to me.
Inspiration and themes
According to the author, her vitabu are "about life, not death" and "love, not lust". Each book in the series was inspired kwa and loosely based on a different literary classic: Twilight on Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, New Moon on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Eclipse on Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights, and Breaking Dawn on a sekunde Shakespeare play, A Midsummer Night's Dream. Meyer also states that Orson Scott Card and L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables series are a big influence on her writing.
Another key theme in the series is that of immortality. Once Bella learns that it is possible for her to become immortal, she sets her sights on this goal. While Edward tries to downplay the value of living indefinitely, for four vitabu this becomes the key theme that drives the story forward, until Bella's eventual transformation into an immortal, non-aging vampire.
Other major themes of the series include choice and free will. Meyer says that the vitabu are centered around Bella's choice to choose her life on her own, and the Cullens' choices to abstain from killing rather than follow their temptations: "I really think that's the underlying metaphor of my vampires. It doesn't matter where you're stuck in life au what wewe think wewe have to do; wewe can always choose something else. There's always a different path."
Meyer, a Mormon, acknowledges that her faith has influenced her work. In particular, she says that her characters "tend to think zaidi about where they came from, and where they are going, than might be typical." Meyer also steers her work from subjects such as sex, despite the romantic nature of the novels. Meyer says that she does not consciously intend her novels to be Mormon-influenced, au to promote the virtues of sexual abstinence and spiritual purity, but admits that her uandishi is shaped kwa her values, saying, "I don't think my vitabu are going to be really graphic au dark, because of who I am. There's always going to be a lot of light in my stories."
Origins and publishing history
Stephenie Meyer says that the idea for Twilight came to her in a dream on June 2, 2003. The dream was about a human girl, and a vampire who was in upendo with her but thirsted for her blood. Based on this dream, Meyer wrote the transcript of what is now chapter 13 of the book. Despite having very little uandishi experience, in a matter of three months she had transformed that dream into a completed novel. After uandishi and editing the novel, she signed a three-book deal with Little, Brown and Company for $750,000, an unusually high amount for a first time author; Megan Tingley, the editor who signed Meyer, says that halfway through the kusoma manuscript she realized that she had a future bestseller in her hands. The book was released in 2005.
Following the success of Twilight, Meyer expanded the story into a series with three zaidi books: New Moon (2006), Eclipse (2007), and Breaking Dawn (2008). In its first week after publication, the first sequel, New Moon, debuted at #5 on the New York Times Best Seller orodha for Children's Chapter Books, and in its sekunde week rose to the #1 position, where it remained for the inayofuata eleven weeks. In total, it spent over 50 weeks on the list. After the release of Eclipse, the first three "Twilight" vitabu spent a combined 143 weeks on the New York Times Best Seller List. The fourth installment of the Twilight series, Breaking Dawn, was released with an initial print run of 3.7 million copies. Over 1.3 million copies were sold on the first siku alone, setting a record in first-day sales performance for the Hachette Book Group USA. Upon the completion of the fourth entry in the series, Meyer indicated that Breaking Dawn would be the final novel to be told from Bella Swan's perspective. In 2008, the four vitabu of the series claimed the juu four spots on USA Today's year-end bestseller list, making Meyer the first mwandishi to ever achieve this feat. The series then won the 2009 Kids' Choice Award for inayopendelewa Book, where it competed against the Harry Potter series.
Meyer originally planned to write a companion book to Twilight called Midnight Sun, which would be the story of Twilight told from Edward Cullen's point-of-view. She stated that Twilight was the only book that she planned to rewrite from Edward's perspective. However, a rough draft of Midnight Sun's first twelve chapters was ilitumwa illegally on the internet. Stephenie Meyer has since put these twelve chapters on her website so that her mashabiki can read it legally, but has put the project on hold indefinitely due to her feelings about the situation. She stated,
If I tried to write Midnight Sun now, in my current frame of mind, James would probably win and all the Cullens would die, which wouldn't dovetail too well with the original story. In any case, I feel too sad about what has happened to continue working on Midnight Sun, and so it is on hold indefinitely.
Though she has no current plans to do so, Meyer has also stated that if she were to continue uandishi in the same universe she would write from the perspective of either Leah Clearwater au Bella and Edward's daughter, Renesmee Cullen.
The Twilight Saga: The Official Guide, which will give further information on the world of the Twilight series, is set to be released in 2009.
Reception and influence
The Twilight Phenomenon
The widespread appeal of the novels and the huge online shabiki community of the series are often noted, and the mwandishi and the series' popularity are often compared with J. K. Rowling and Harry Potter. Describing the shabiki following of the books, the Phoenix New Times wrote, "Meyer's fandom is reminiscent of Harry Potter mania." The Daily Telegraph agreed and described Twilight as the "spiritual successor to Harry Potter". Rebekah Bradford of The Post and Courier noted that that the series has a "huge crossover appeal much like the Harry Potter vitabu before them." Meyer responds to such comparisons, saying, "It's terribly flattering to be compared to her, but there's never going to be another J.K. Rowling; that's a phenomenon that's not gonna happen again", however noting that "you can compare my mashabiki to her mashabiki zaidi easily [than me to her]. I do think that we both have people who are just really really enthusiastic, and will come miles to see wewe and be involved, and everybody really cares about our characters." Crystal Mack of Daily Herald noted, "While teenage girls are the main audience, young boys and adults of both genders have also been swept up in the phenomenon." According to the Daily Telegraph, "Stephenie Meyer, in particular, has achieved incredible success across all the English-speaking nations and Europe and many will say that her Twilight series has filled the hole left kwa Harry Potter."
A social networking community for Twilight mashabiki has over 250,000 members at the series' official site, and the series has spawned hundreds of fansites. The Twilight series' popularity and enthusiastic shabiki following have grabbed media attention and been dubbed "The Twilight Phenomenon". In addition, Gina McIntyre of the Los Angeles Times has called Twilight "a full-blown pop culture phenomenon". mashabiki of Meyer are noted to "dress up like her characters. They write their own stories about them and post their tales on the Internet. When she appears at a bookstore, 3,000 people go to meet her. There are Twilight-themed rock bands." The Irish Times noted, "The Twilight books...have generated a movement that strains definitions of the word 'cult'."
A store catering to tourists interested in the Twilight series in Forks, Washington.
Economically, the town of Forks, Washington, the setting for the Twilight series, has improved due to tourism from mashabiki of the books. Forks is visited kwa an average of 8,000 tourists per month, and has been described as a "mecca for Twilighters". Many of the restaurants have Twilight-themed menus and the shops sell Twilight-related items. The town also hosts Twilight tours, which visit places such as La Push's First Beach, the hospital where Carlisle Cullen supposedly works, and a two-story house meant to portray the swan residence. In response to plans for the aging Forks High School to be renovated, Twilight mashabiki have teamed up with Infinite Jewelry Co. and the West Olympic Peninsula Betterment Association to collect donations in an attempt to save the brick appearance au the building altogether. In addition, an annual "Stephenie Meyer Day" is celebrated in Forks on September 13, the birthday of character Bella Swan.
According to Megan Tingley, editor at Little, Brown and Company, "Stephenie's mashabiki are rabid, Stephenie has tapped into something very deep in her readers, and they respond on an emotional level."
In an interview with USA Today, US president Barack Obama alisema that he and his ten-year-old daughter, Malia, often bond over the Twilight books, while Kelly Clarkson has described herself as a "Twilight nerd" and even wrote a song based on New Moon. Emily Osment described Twilight as one of her "all-time-favorite books" and praised Stephenie Meyer, saying, "From the first chapter, Meyer grabbed my attention and kept me enthralled throughout the entire book. The characters contrast so greatly, I found myself wondering how she pieced them so seamlessly."
As well, Emma Watson has described herself as a Twilight shabiki and said, "I upendo those vitabu ... I literally felt depressed when I finished kusoma them".
Praise and cultural impact
An Arabic Twilight promotional poster in a bookshop in Dubai. kwa late 2009, the vitabu had reportedly sold 100,000 copies in English across the UAE.
Upon Twilight's initial publication, the book generally received positive reviews, which acted as a catalyst to spread its popularity. Seattle Post-Intelligencer called the book a "hot new teen novel", and The Times praised the book for capturing "perfectly the teenage feeling of sexual tension and alienation." Larry Carroll for MTV sinema deemed Edward and Bella "an iconic upendo story for a whole generation." Amazon.com hailed the book as "[d]eeply romantic and extraordinarily suspenseful", while School maktaba Journal stated, "Realistic, subtle, succinct, and easy to follow, Twilight will have readers dying to sink their teeth into it". Booklist said, "this dark romance is gripping", and Norah Piehl of TeenReads wrote, "Twilight is a gripping blend of romance and horror".
Referring to the series' enduring popularity and fandom, USA Today said, "Move over, Harry Potter". In addition, Entertainment Weekly hailed Meyer as "the world's most maarufu vampire novelist since Anne Rice". The New York Times has described Twilight as a "literary phenomenon", and Matt Arado of Daily Herald noted that the Twilight vitabu have become the "hottest publishing phenomenon since a certain bespectacled wizard cast his spell on the world." Lev Grossman of Time wrote that the vitabu have a "pillowy quality distinctly reminiscent of Internet shabiki fiction", but still praised the series, comparing it to The Lord of the Rings and Harry Potter:
People do not want to just read Meyer's books; they want to climb inside them and live there...There's no literary term for the quality Twilight and Harry Potter (and The Lord of the Rings) share, but wewe know it when wewe see it: their worlds have a freestanding internal integrity that makes wewe feel as if wewe should be able to buy real estate there.
Outlining the anticipated release of Breaking Dawn, The Sunday Times called Twilight, "no ordinary vampire series – it boils with desire that all goes painfully unconsummated – and Meyer turns out to be far from an ordinary author". The Times wrote, "The Wanyonya damu that sank their fangs into Harry Potter were born in the low desert of Arizona. They arrived in a dream, were immediately translated to paper, spread through the adolescent population like a virus and transmogrified into a publishing phenomenon." The San Diego Union-Tribune described the vitabu as a "classic tale of undying love, one that has mashabiki gushing about a Harry Potter-with-fangs global phenomenon." The Guardian described Meyer as an "imaginative storyteller, a prolific mwandishi and a newly powerful figure in the publishing market."
Despite Twilight's popularity, the vitabu have received criticism. Stephen King stated, "the real difference [between J.K. Rowling and Meyer] is that Jo Rowling is a terrific writer, and Stephenie Meyer can't write worth a darn. She's not very good." However, King understood the appeal of the series, adding, "People are attracted kwa the stories, kwa the pace and in the case of Stephenie Meyer, it's very clear that she's uandishi to a whole generation of girls and opening up kind of a salama joining of upendo and sex in those books. It's exciting and it's thrilling and it's not particularly threatening because it's not overtly sexual."
Laura Miller of Salon.com wrote that "the characters, such as they are, are stripped down to a minimum, lacking the texture and idiosyncrasies of actual people", and alisema that "Twilight would be a lot zaidi persuasive as an argument that an 'amazing heart' counts for zaidi than appearances if it didn't harp so incessantly on Edward's superficial splendors." Miller also accused the series of sexism in its portrayal of female characters, most notably Bella Swan's obsessive behavior relating to Edward Cullen and the emphasis on his romantic hero status. Meyer has dismissed such criticisms, arguing both that the vitabu center around Bella's choice, which she perceives as the foundation of modern feminism, and that Bella's damsel in distress persona is due only to her humanity. Meyer also added, "Just because [Bella] doesn't do kung fu and she cooks for her father doesn't make her worthy of that criticism". However, in another feminist critique of the series, bitch, kahaba magazine stated the novels' appeal were due to their being "abstinence porn", concluding that, "In reality, the abstinence message—wrapped in the genre of abstinence porn—objectifies Bella in the same ways that "real" porn might. The Twilight vitabu conflate Bella losing her virginity with the loss of other things, including her sense of self and her very life. Such a high-stakes treatment of abstinence reinforces the idea that Bella is powerless, an object, a fact that is highlighted when we get to the sex scenes in Breaking Dawn."
Main article: The Twilight Saga (film series)
A screenplay for Twilight was written kwa Melissa Rosenberg and has been adapted into a film kwa Summit Entertainment. The film was directed kwa Catherine Hardwicke, with Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson in the leading roles of Isabella swan and Edward Cullen, respectively. The movie was released in the United States on November 21, 2008. Twilight: The Complete Illustrated Movie Companion, written kwa Mark Cotta Vaz, was released October 28.
On November 22, 2008, following the box office success of Twilight, Summit Entertainment confirmed a sequel based on the sekunde book in the series, New Moon which would go kwa the name of The Twilight Saga: New Moon. The film was released on November 20, 2009.